How to Make Kaong and Coconut Wine – Toddy

One of the common products of coconut and kaong is the sap or juice. Sap is processed to vinegar and lambanog but processing it to wine or commonly called toddy is neglected.  The juice is sweet with initial sugar content of 20% . Natural juice microflora spontaneously ferment it to wine and vinegar. Toddy processing lies in successful arrest of natural  vinegar fermentation.

The term coconut wine or kaong wine should not be mistaken with lambanog or vodka. Wine contains 9-18 % alcohol while vodka contains 35-50% . The usual alcohol content for lambanog is 80 proof or 40%. Wine goes through distillation process to produce 80 proof vodka.

For the sake of technicality, wine, is the product of grape juice fermented by appropriate yeast.  Other fruits, vegetables and flowers that are processed in the same manner inherits its name. The word “wine” is understood from grapes. Others are distinguished by appending the commodity name before the word “wine”. Mango wine, bignay wine and rose wine.

Wild yeast are responsible for fermenting sugars to alcohol. It requires no oxygen during the process. Then, acetic acid bacteria that are naturally present in sap ferment alcohol to vinegar. It requires oxygen to take action.  We’re gonna kill vinegar producing bacteria during wine making process.

1. Clean all equipment that will be used for sap collection. This will help reduce microbial contamination.  Sap are collected from unopened coconut flower and sugar palm (kaong) male inflorescence. Mixing of two liquid is permissible.

2. Collect sap every 5 hours. Longer collection interval allows acetic acid bacteria to convert it to vinegar. Soured juice is not fitted for toddy processing.

3. Transfer to fermentation tank. A narrow mout jar with cotton plug will do. Leave enough head space to accommodate rising bubbles. Fermentation is done when bubbling ceases. Alcohol fermentation occurs in anaerobic condition while vinegar conversion occurs only with the presence of oxygen. Avoid air exposure of sap to prevent sourness.

4. Pasteurize for 15 minutes at 75 degree centigrade. Pack immediately in clean jars.  It can be consumed immediately but aging will develop its flavor further.

5. If a great tasting wine is desired, age it for at least one year. The longer the aging, the more delectable it becomes. Then, siphon the clear liquid and fill into sterilized bottles. Label


Measure the following physico-chemical properties and and adjust accordingly to your set standard. These properties should be uniform every batch.

a. sugar content. Sugar concentration can be increased by adding sugar or can be lowered by adding water or pulp.

b. pH. This can be lowered by adding citric acid or can be increased by adding water or pulp.

c. titrable acidity. Same as in (a), just replace sugar with citric acid. Be cautious because citric acid affects both pH and titrable acidity.

Adjustments can be computed using Pearson’s Square formula.


Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines. Do coaching and consultancy services on his free time.

3 Replies to “How to Make Kaong and Coconut Wine – Toddy”

  1. Dear Marvin,
    I m confused with your article dated Feb 2 2010- “How to make sugar palm juice, tuba”, with this article- “How to make kaong and coconut wine-toddy”. What are the differences ?

    1. Sorry about it and sorry regarding the use of similar images. The wine is fermented further after harvest to maximize the alcohol content. The tuba is pasteurized immediately to retain the sweet alcoholic mix. The sap is collected by cutting the inflorescence and placing a container underneath. It is collected twice a day. Alcoholic fermentation starts as soon as sap drops to collecting chamber so a sweet juice without alcoholic kick is not feasible. Recently, my sister who was engaged in further studies told that ideal sap collection should be every five hours. It is ideal for both juice and sugar production.

      Our locality called the freshly harvested sap/juice as tuba. Definition might be different in other places. Here is a comment from Coco Palm Sugar to add more confusion.

      coconut = niyog
      sap = dagta
      unfermented coco sap = tinamis
      fermented coco sap, (6++ hours) = coconut toddy/wine = tuba
      week-old tuba = bahalina
      aged tuba (30++ days) = bahal
      distilled tuba = lambanog

      Please refer to this article for the whole comment, “”
      Another article with different definition, “”, based from popular tv show.

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